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Friday, 28 October 2016

HOW TO FLASHING SAMSUNG S7392

To entering odin mode
power off your mobile s7392
press( home ) + ( vol- ) + ( power ) buttom
release power buttom when an android logo apper
now vol+ to select odin mode
then next procedure are in video


FLASH FILE DOWNLOAD LINK
https://drive.google.com/uc?id=0BxmV5S--nNBWS3VSMkFFUHVtZHc

THIS VIDEO TO SEE THE FLASHING PROCEDURE OF SAMSUNG S7392
























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Wednesday, 19 October 2016

MEASURING CURRENT

You will rarely need to take current measurements, however most multimeters have DC current ranges such as 0.5mA, 50mA, 500mA and 10Amp (via the extra banana socket) and some meters have AC current ranges.  Measuring the current of a circuit will tell you a lot of things.  If you know the normal current, a high or low current can let you know if the circuit is overloaded or not fully operational.

Current is always measured when the circuit is working (i.e: with power applied).
It is measured IN SERIES with the circuit or component under test.
The easiest way to measure current is to remove the fuse and take a reading across the fuse-holder. Or remove one lead of the battery or turn the project off, and measure across the switch.
If this is not possible, you will need to remove one end of a component and measure with the two probes in the "opening."
Resistors are the easiest things to desolder, but you may have to cut a track in some circuits. You have to get an "opening" so that a current reading can be taken.
The following diagrams show how to connect the probes to take a CURRENT reading. 
Do not measure the current ACROSS a component as this will create a "short-circuit."
The component is designed to drop a certain voltage and when you place the probes across this component, you are effectively adding a "link" or "jumper" and the voltage at the left-side of the component will appear on the right-side. This voltage may be too high for the circuit being supplied and the result will be damage. 



Measuring current through a resistor



Measuring the current of a globe
Do NOT measure the CURRENT of a battery
(by placing the meter directly across the terminals)
A battery will deliver a very HIGH current
and damage the meter
Do not measure the "current a battery will deliver" by placing the probes across the terminals. It will deliver a very high current and damage the meter instantly. There are special battery testing instruments for this purpose.
When measuring across an "opening" or "cut," place the red probe on the wire that supplies the voltage (and current) and the black probe on the other wire. This will produce a "POSITIVE" reading.
A positive reading is an UPSCALE READING and the pointer will move across the scale - to the right. A "NEGATIVE READING" will make the pointer hit the "STOP" at the left of the scale and you will not get a reading. If you are using a Digital Meter, a negative sign "-" will appear on the screen to indicate the probes are around the wrong way. No damage will be caused. It just indicates the probes are connected incorrectly. 
If you want an accurate CURRENT MEASUREMENT, use a digital meter.
 

MEASURING VOLTAGE

Most of the readings taken with a multimeter will be VOLTAGE readings.
Before taking a reading, you should select the highest range and if the needle does not move up scale (to the right), you can select another range.
Always switch to the highest range before probing a circuit and keep your fingers away from the component being tested.
If the meter is Digital, select the highest range or use the auto-ranging feature, by selecting "V." The meter will automatically produce a result, even if the voltage is AC or DC.
If the meter is not auto-ranging, you will have to select http://www.talkingelectronics.com/projects/Testing%20Electronic%20Components/images/v.gifif the voltage is from a DC source or http://www.talkingelectronics.com/projects/Testing%20Electronic%20Components/images/v-.gifif the voltage is from an AC source. DC means Direct Current and the voltage is coming from a battery or supply where the voltage is steady and not changing and AC means Alternating Current where the voltage is coming from a voltage that is rising and falling. 
You can measure the voltage at different points in a circuit by connecting the black probe to chassis. This is the 0v reference and is commonly called "Chassis" or "Earth" or "Ground" or "0v."
The red lead is called the "measuring lead" or "measuring probe" and it can measure voltages at any point in a circuit. Sometimes there are "test points" on a circuit and these are wires or loops designed to hold the tip of the red probe (or a red probe fitted with a mini clip).
You can also measure voltages ACROSS A COMPONENT. In other words, the reading is taken in PARALLEL with the component. It may be the voltage across a transistor, resistor, capacitor, diode or coil. In most cases this voltage will be less than the supply voltage.
If you are measuring the voltage in a circuit that has a HIGH IMPEDANCE, the reading will be inaccurate, up to 90% !!!, if you use a cheap analogue meter.


Here's a simple case.
The circuit below consists of two 1M resistors in series. The voltage at the mid point will be 5v when nothing is connected to the mid point. But if we use a cheap analogue multimeter set to 10v, the resistance of the meter will be about 100k, if the meter has a sensitivity of 10k/v and the reading will be incorrect.
Here how it works:
Every meter has a sensitivity. The sensitivity of the meter is the sensitivity of the movement and is the amount of current required to deflect the needle FULL SCALE.
This current is very small, normally 1/10th of a milliamp and corresponds to a sensitivity of 10k/volt (or 1/30th mA, for a sensitivity of 30k/v).
If an analogue meter is set to 10v, the internal resistance of the meter will be 100k for a 10k/v movement.
If this multimeter is used to test the following circuit, the reading will be inaccurate.
The reading should be 5v as show in diagram
A.
But the analogue multimeter has an internal resistance of 100k and it creates a circuit shown in
C.
The top 1M and 100k from the meter create a combined PARALLEL resistance of 90k. This forms a series circuit with the lower 1M and the meter will read less than 1v  
If we measure the voltage across the lower 1M, the 100k meter will form a value of resistance with the lower 1M and it will read less than 1v
If the multimeter is 30k/v, the readings will be 2v. See how easy it is to get a totally inaccurate reading.




This introduces two new terms:
HIGH IMPEDANCE CIRCUIT and "RESISTORS in SERIES and PARALLEL."

If the reading is taken with a Digital Meter, it will be more accurate as a DMM does not take any current from the circuit (to activate the meter). In other words it has a very HIGH input impedance. Most Digital Multimeters have a fixed input resistance (impedance) of 10M - no matter what scale is selected. That's the reason for choosing a DMM for high impedance circuits.  It also gives a reading that is accurate to about 1%.


MEASURING VOLTAGES IN A CIRCUIT
You can take many voltage-measurements in a circuit. You can measure "across" a component, or between any point in a circuit and either the positive rail or earth rail (0v rail). In the following circuit, the 5 most important voltage-measurements are shown. Voltage "A" is across the electret microphone. It should be between 20mV and 500mV. Voltage "B" should be about 0.6v. Voltage "C" should be about half-rail voltage. This allows the transistor to amplify both the positive and negative parts of the waveform. Voltage "D" should be about 1-3v. Voltage "E" should be the battery voltage of 12v.

MEASURING VOLTAGES IN A CIRCUIT

Friday, 7 October 2016

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